行政规范性文件,立法监督,行政监督,司法监督,备案审查,行政规范性文件的审查监督制度探讨
行政规范性文件的审查监督制度探讨
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行政规范性文件的审查监督制度探讨

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  • 行政规范性文件,立法监督,行政监督,司法监督,备案审查,
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    行政规范性文件是行政机关实施行政管理的重要依据,对行政法律规范起着重要的补充和细化作用,然而由于相关法律制度的缺失及相应理论研究的不足,导致一些行政规范性文件存在着一些严重不合理、甚至不合法的不足。而不适当的行政规范性文件一旦实施,其危害是巨大的,作为抽象行政行为中的一种,其会在较长一段时期影响着一定地区、一定系统内的成千上万人的利益,甚至会危害社会稳定。因此,有必要对加强对行政规范性文件的审查监督相关制度的研究,使行政规范性文件得到有效规制,进而充分发挥自身效用。本文先从审查监督的对象开始,依次展开。本文首先介绍了我国立法对行政规范性文件的规定和学者们对行政规范性文件名称的各种阐释,并对各种名称进行比较浅析浅析,认为对行政立法以外的普遍性规则应该概括为“行政规范性文件”更加适当的称谓。行政规范性文件的内涵有广义和狭义之分,本文认为采用广义的解释更加适当。在明确其名称和内涵之后,本文概括出行政规范性文件的特点,并对行政规范性文件进行分类,同时指出了行政规范性文件在我国行政管理中的重要作用。本文第二部分,指出由于缺乏相应法律规范的明确规定,行政规范性文件在实体方面和程序方面存在许多不足。本部分着重介绍了我国现行行政规范性文件监督审查制度的近况,并指出其存在的缺陷。对行政规范性文件监督应该是全方位、多层次的,但由于我国对监督审查重要性认识不足,相关监督体系又缺乏具体明确的制度设计,导致了立法监督流于形式,致使整个监督体制不力。行政复议制度采用间接附带审查的方式,不利于保护相对人的合法权益;行政备案审查工作缺乏明确的法律规定,备案工作流于形式。而我国行政诉讼法直接将抽象行政行为排除在司法审查的范围之外,使法院对行政规范性文件仅有“选择适用权”,而不能作出确认其违法甚至撤销的裁判,致使司法监督缺失。本文第三部分对域外行政法治发达国家行政规范性文件的监督模式进行介绍,并总结出可供借鉴的监督模式。笔者通过对法国、德国、英国和美国监督模式的比较浅析浅析,结合我国实际,指出了三种可供借鉴的模式,即以司法监督为主的模式、加强事前监督的模式和建立专门委员会的模式。本文第四部分主要对我国行政规范性文件审查监督制度提出了完善倡议。对于事前监督,相关主体必须严格遵循行政规范性文件制定主体资格和制定权限的法律规定。对于事中监督,我国必须统一行政规范性文件制定程序的系统规定。对于事后监督,权力机关监督的完善,应当以完善人大常委会的备案监督权为重点进行制度设计,明确备案审查的范围、机构、时间和标准、方式和程序等。行政监督的完善主要从三方面进行,其一是完善对行政规范性文件的复议制度;其二是完善行政规范性文件的备案审查制度,明确备案审查的法律效力、机构和内容、时间和程序等;其三是建立行政规范性文件定期清理与自动失效制度。司法监督的完善,主要是通过修改《行政诉讼法》的相关规定,扩大行政诉讼的受案范围,将法院对行政规范性文件的有限审查权发展为完整的司法监督权。社会监督的完善,应当充分调动公众和新闻媒体参与和监督的积极性,进一步拓宽公民参与公共管理的渠道,维护社会的和谐稳定。

    【Abstract】WwW.zIdiR.coM The regulatory documents of administration are executive authorities to implement an important basis for administrat- ion.The administration of legal norms play an important role in refining and added that in practice the administration, but because of lack of relevant legal systems and lack of theoretical research has led to some administrative normative documents themselves, there are many questions, and even its serious unreasonable even illegal. Without the appropriate administrative normative documents, its hazards are enormous, as the abstract behavior of administration, which will be at a longer period of time must affect the region and the interests of tens of thousands of people, and may even endanger the social stability. Therefore, it is necessary to strengthen normative documents of administration examination and supervision of research, administration makes the effective normative documents regulating the system, thereby giving fall play to their effectiveness.In this paper, the object of examination and supervision is introduced, the administration an overview of the normative documents. Author introduced the legislation on ourcountry on the administration of the provisions of normative documents and academic scholars of administrative normative documents different interpretation of the name, through a comparative analysis of a variety of names, other than the executive and the legislature to consider the universality of the rules should be summed up as administrative normative documents, the name more appropriate. Normative documents administration has broad and narrow meaning of the points, this paper is a broader interpretation. Clearly the name and content, there is in favor of seizing the administration of characteristics of regulatory documents and their classification. Then points out the normative documents of the administration in our country the important role of the administration.The second part of this article points out administrative normative documents formulate the main a bit confusing. Normative documents on the administration should be comprehensive and multi-level, but because of the importance of supervision and inadequate understanding of the review and the related lack of specific supervisory system specific operational system design, resulting in the entire monitoring system ineffective. Legislative oversight at all levels, mainly through the Standing Committee of the normative documents of the administration to review the record to achieve, but legislative oversight mere formality. Administrative review system in an indirect way of collateral review is not conducive to the protection of people’s legitimate rights and interests relative; administration record review only the relevant legislation provisions, but the lack of specific legal provisions, the record is only a mere formality; administration normative documents cleaning is not included as a statutory executive job duties. Administrative Procedure Law in China directly to the abstract administrative actions to exclude the scope of judicial review, the court of administrative normative documents only very limited supervision, namely the right to select the application and should not make the law or even revoke its recognition of their decisions, loss of judicial oversight.This article describes the third part of the rule of law in developed countries extraterritorial administration regulatory documents and supervision of model summarized for reference model. The auther introduce France, Germany, the United Kingdom, the United States. Through analysis and comparison, combined with the reality of our country, the paper pointed out that the three models used for reference, that is, as the main mode of judicial supervision, strengthen supervision in advance, specially set up committee to monitor mode.In this paper, the fourth part of the main administration of our country review of regulatory documents to improve the oversight recommendations. For prior supervision, must be based on the legal form of a clear normative documents administration formulate the main qualifications and competence. For a matter of supervision, and administration must formulate a unified regulatory documents formulate procedures. According to China’s existing laws, normative documents on the administration of expost face to review of supervision is key. The right of legislative oversight is mainly expressed in the Standing Committee to supervise the record, but its lack of maneuverability of the system involves, thus this article in order to perfect the supervision of the Standing Committee of the record for the right to focus on design of the system. Must clearly record the scope of the review, record review, agencies, record the time and review standards, the record review methods and review procedures, and so one. Administrative supervision of the main three-pronged approach to improve the first, improve the administration of the review of regulatory documents system; Second, improve the administration of regulatory documents to review the system of filing the legal effect of a clear record, the record review agencies and the contents of the record to review the timing and procedures. Third, the administration set up to regularly clean up the normative documents and the system automatically lapse. Judicial supervision of the sound, mainly by modifying the Administrative Procedure Law, the expansion of administrative proceedings of the case the scope of the Court of normative documents of the administration have Court Administration normative documents of the limited review of the right to development judicial supervision. Strengthening social supervision, and give full play to the public participation and supervision of the news media reported that channel, further broadening citizen participation in administration formulate normative documents to participate in public management of channels.

    【关键词】 行政规范性文件; 立法监督; 行政监督; 司法监督; 备案审查;
    【Key words】 administrative normative documents; legislative oversight; administrative supervision; judicial supervision; the record review;
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