公物命名,验收,冠名,公物致害,人工公物公用开始行为探讨
人工公物公用开始行为探讨
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人工公物公用开始行为探讨

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  • 公物命名,验收,冠名,公物致害,
    正文开始
    公物的公用开始行为,也即公物的命名,是指行政主体对私法上的财产作出开始公用的意思表示,从而使其成为法律意 义上的公物的行为。人工公物的成立,不仅要求该物事实上已经存在或被生产了出来,而且必须提供公共利用,即需要具备形体和意思两项要件。人工公物的设置本身属于一种公共权力的行使,它涉及到资源的分配,关系到人们的相关利益和权利,因而这种行使公权力的过程应遵循一定的正当程序,具体包括人工公物的设置计划、形体建设、竣工验收、公物冠名、明确使用管理规则和划分不同使用者的权利义务。人工公物公用开始行为的作出至少产生以下法律后果:人工公物的命名不因缺少私法所有权人的同意而无效;确立了人工公物管理者的概括性义务;使所有者的支配权受到限制;人工公物的全部所有权不因第三人的善意而取得;因物而发生纠纷时可能导致公法的和私法的手段并存。人工公物的公用开始行为在现实中至少存在以下不足:第一,人工公物的相关主体之间的权限划分模糊。建设单位集招标、组织施工建设和验收的权力与一体;验收机关也不惟一;很多人工公物的命名机关同时又是管理机关,管理机关同时又是经营机关,管理权和经营权不分;第二,人工公物的冠名过度商业化,这不仅损害了公物名称应有的地名功能,也造成资源的浪费,损害公共利益和他人利益;第三,人工公物冠名费的归属和用途界定不清。建设机关、管理机关甚至地名办都主张有权收取冠名费。冠名费既可以被用作日常办公和地名标志的维护管理,也可以作为公物运营公司的盈利,用途界定比较混乱;第四,对违法的命名行为的救济不力;第五,公物命名各主体之间的责任划分不清。这主要表现在两个方面:着重强调建设机关(验收机关)的法律责任,忽视命名机关的法律责任和对管理机关的责任性质认定不清,责任范围也过于宽泛。针对以上存在的不足,首先,必须在相关主体之间进行合理的分权,做到建设权和验收权分离,命名权和管理权分离,管理权和经营权分离,同时要完善公众参与制度,加强对命名行为的公众监督;其次,要规范公物冠名的程序,一方面严格限制可以由私人进行冠名的公物的范围和数量,另一方面确保冠名程序要公开、公平、公正并收取有偿冠名费;复次,明确人工公物冠名费的归属和用途。根据公共信托理论,公物冠名权应当属于全体人民,由公物命名机关代表全体人民在符合公共利益的范围内予以行使。因此,公物冠名费应当纳入国家财政体系,属于全体人民所有,并且冠名费应当服务于公共利益,用于公物的建设、维护和管理;再次,完善违法的公物命名行为的救济途径,在赔偿主体难以确定的情况下,推定公物命名主体为赔偿人;最后,明晰相关主体在公物致害方面的责任分配和责任界定。

    【Abstract】WwW.zIdiR.coM The starting public use of artificial public property, also meaning the naming of public property, is the administrative body declaring property in private law for public use, making the property in sense of public law. The establishment of artificial public property requires two elements, which are form and meaning. The set of artificial public property is a form of exercising public power, which involves the allocation of resources and relates to the people’s interests and rights, and thus that process should follow certain due process, specifically including the plans of setting artificial public property, physical construction, completion acceptance, the title of public property, clearing rules and different user’s rights and obligations. The naming of artificial public property at least results in the following legal consequences:the lack of consent from owners in civil law can not cause the naming invalid; establishing the general obligation of artificial public property managers; limiting the control right of owner; the full ownership of artificial public property not belong to a third person in good faith; means of resolving disputes including public law and private law means.The naming of public property at least exist the following problems in reality. First, the division of authority between the main body is unclear. The building authority has powers including bidding, construction and acceptance. Acceptance of authority is not the only. The naming authority at the same time is the management authority and the management authority is also an operating authority, regardless of management rights and management rights. Second, the title of artificial public property is over-commercialization, which not only damaging the function of place names, but also causing resources waste and harming public interests and the interests of others. Third, the ownership and use of the name fees of artificial public property are not clearly defined. The building authority, the administrative authority and even the name authority all advocate the right to receive name fees. The name fees can be used for daily office and maintenance of name signs and also as the profit of the operate authority. Fourth, the relief to the illegal name is not enough. Fifth, the division of responsibilities between the name authorities is unclear.To solve the above problem, we should take the following measures. First, the reasonable division of power in the relevant authorities is necessary, while strengthening public supervision. Second, it needs to standardize procedures for naming of public property. On the one hand strictly limited to the scope and number of title of public property by private, on the other hand ensure the procedures of title open, fair and impartial and receive name fees. Third, the ownership and use of the name fees should be explicated. According to the public trust doctrine, the title right should belong to all people and the people authorize the naming authority to exercise this right within the scope of public interest. Therefore, the name fees should belong to all people and be integrated into the national financial system, at the same time the name fees should serve the public interest for the public property of the construction, maintenance and management. Fourth, the relief to the illegal name should be improved. When the compensation authority is difficult to determine, the compensation obligator is inferred to be the naming authority of the artificial public property. Fifth, the definition and allocation of responsibilities on damages caused by the naming of artificial public property should be clear.

    【关键词】 公物命名; 验收; 冠名; 公物致害;
    【Key words】 the naming of artificial public property; acceptance; title; damages caused by artificial public property;
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