沙俄,远东政策,《中俄密约》,“黄俄罗斯计划”,日俄战争,从甲午战争到日俄战争:俄国远东政的嬗变(1895-1904)
从甲午战争到日俄战争:俄国远东政的嬗变(1895-1904)
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从甲午战争到日俄战争:俄国远东政的嬗变(1895-1904)

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  • 沙俄,远东政策,《中俄密约》,“黄俄罗斯计划”,日俄战争,
    正文开始
    甲午战争后,俄领导了“三国还辽”,这使得远东国际力量出现了新的组合,远东国际关系发生了重大变化。一方面,俄国不仅不费吹灰之力就从“三国还辽”中捞足了好处,还充当了中国的“救星”这一角色,从此中国走上了“联俄制日”的道路。另一方面,日本由于把辽东半岛这个“最好的胜利果实”让出,心里极不情愿,它认定俄国是其推行大陆政策的绊脚石。此后,日本便以俄国为敌,同俄国在远东展开了激烈的争夺。自1895年“三国还辽”开始,俄国便拉开了俄国实行其远东侵略计划的序幕。由于受当时的国际环境以及俄国国内内部环境的影响,在1895年——1904年这十年的间里,俄国将其侵略的重心逐步转移到远东。通过对俄国远东政策的渐变过程的浅析浅析,可以将其远东政策分为三个时期:1895年——1896年为第个时期,这是俄国初步涉足远东,尚不敢轻举妄动的时期。1896——1902年为第二个时期,在这个时期,由于经过1896年中日甲午战争后,俄国领导的“三国还辽”的成功极大地刺激了俄国在远东的野心,从此,俄国将其战略重心完全转移至远东地区,通过一系列不平等条约侵占了中国和朝鲜的大片领土,企图称霸远东。1902——1904为第三个时期,这一时期,俄国的争霸行为最终导致日本和其他西方列强的强烈不满,最终导致了1904日俄战争的爆发,俄国最终惨败于战争而暂时退出了远东的争霸。本文也是按这一时间顺序将文章分为四章:第一章内容主要介绍了沙俄在“干涉还辽”后为了保卫其胜利果实,假以中国“救星”的角色,威逼利诱清政府签订了《中俄密约》,实质上俄国通过这一条约实现了西伯利亚铁路支线穿过中国东北的愿望,同时利用华俄胜道银行对中国进行资本的输入,从而将其侵略势力名正言顺的伸展到了中国东北。在第二章中,沙俄进一步脱下了虚假的外衣,决意通过军事征伐来强占中国东北。由此炮制了侵略中国的“黄俄罗斯计划”,“黄俄罗斯计划”是俄国远东扩张政策的升级,俄国通过《奉天暂且交地章程》把东三省将军变成向俄国军事指挥官负责并维持地方治安的工具,“满洲”名存实亡,成为俄国的殖民地。俄国将其重心完全转移到了远东地区。除了在中国进行掠夺外,沙俄还在朝鲜的不足上同日本展开了激烈的争夺,并企图独霸朝鲜。在第三章中,面对俄国在远东地区咄咄逼人的侵略架势,及其在远东的“闭关门户”和独占中国东北和朝鲜的野心,其他列强感受到了来自沙俄的威胁。由于俄国推行的远东政策同日本的大陆政策的矛盾的不可调和,日本在朝鲜和中国东北与俄国对抗不断升级,一场大战不可避开。受本国利益的驱使,其他列强均支持日本对俄宣战,最终爆发了日俄战争,日俄战争以俄国的惨败宣告结束。至此,沙俄在这一时期的远东政策宣告破产。文章的最后对这一时期俄国“远东政策”嬗变的理由从国际环境、国内环境、以及其国内领导人因素这三个方面做了初步的探讨,从而揭示出帝国主义侵略的本质。

    【Abstract】WwW.zIdiR.coM After the event of "Three Countries’Intervention", the new combinations of the Far East international forces became to emerge, and the Far East international relations have been changed dramatically. One hand, Russia not only got his benefits easily from the event of "Three Countries’Intervention", but also acted as a savior of China, which brought China to way of unite Russia making a day; on the other hand, Japan considered that Russia was the obstacle of his China policy, because of losing liaotung peninsula. From then on, Japan regarded Russia as his enemy and began to fight drastically with Russia in the Far East area.After the event of "Three Countries’ Intervention" in 1895, Russia began to implement his plan of the Far East evasion. During the 10 years between 1895 and 1904, Russia moved the main part of his evasion to the Far East area gradually, because of the international environment and his domestic factor. Based on the analysis of Russia’s far east evasion plan, the far east policy of Russia can be divided into three parts. Firstly, in the period of 1895 to 1896, Russia just began to enter the Far East area. Secondly, from 1896 to 1902, after his succession in the event of Three Countries’Intervention", Russia moved his strategic center to the Far East area and evaded much territory of China and North Korea attempting to dominate the Far East area. Thirdly, between 1902 and 1904,Russia’s striving for hegemony in the far east area caused drastically discontentment of Japan and some other western countries, which resulted in the explosion of the war between Japan and Russia. Been defeated in the war between Russia and Japan, Russia exited the striving for hegemony provisionally in the area of Far East.In this paper, the whole contents can be divided into four parts according to time order. In the first part, Russia acted as China’s savior apparently in the event of "Three Countries’ Intervention", and signed "Sino-Russia secret agreement" with China. But actually, Russia realized his wish that he could build his Siberia railway directly to the northeast of China using "Sino-Russia secret agreement", and used Russo Chinese Bank to import his capital into China in order to colonize the northeast of China in the future. In the second part, Russia decided to evade and occupy the northeast of China with military force with the plan called "Yellow Russia" program, in which Russia can use "Fengtian for the constitution" to replace the general of the three northeast provinces of China with Russian commander to colonize the northeast of China. Besides China, Russia also strived with Japan for North Korea in order to colonize North Korea exclusively. In the third part, facing Russia’s "Retreat Portal" policy in the far east and its ambition of occupying North Korea and Northeast part of China, the other empires felt the threat from Russia. Because of the confliction between Russia’s far east policy and Japan’s mainland policy, the confrontation between Japan and Russia became so intense that Russo-Japanese War was going to exploded. After Russo-Japanese War exploded, the other empires all stood behind Japan under the consideration of each country’s own benefits. At last, Russia was defeated in Russo-Japanese War, and his policy in the Far East failed as well. In last part of this paper, the reasons for the failure of Russia’s far east policy were discussed with three factors:international environment, domestic environment and its own leader. And, the conclusion that Russia is totally imperiali** can be deduced from the discussion mentioned above.

    【关键词】 沙俄; 远东政策; 《中俄密约》; “黄俄罗斯计划”; 日俄战争;
    【Key words】 Russia; Far East policy; Sino-Russia secret agreement; "Yellow Russia" program; Russo-Japanese War;
      http://www.zidir.com/html/lw/yxgl/379172.html
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      沙俄 远东政策 《中俄密约》 “黄俄罗斯计划” 日俄战争
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