泰州学派,哲学思想,四僧,新安画派,扬州画派,绘画思想,泰州学派对明末清初绘画思想的影响
泰州学派对明末清初绘画思想的影响
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泰州学派对明末清初绘画思想的影响

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  • 泰州学派,哲学思想,四僧,新安画派,扬州画派,绘画思想,
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    当中国思想史出现重大理论成就时,艺术思想必定产生一次激变。这当中后人研究最多的是禅宗与中国艺术发展的关系,但在研究哲学思想与艺术思想关系不足上有一个相对的空白,即儒家思想在变迁过程中对艺术思想的影响。虽然也有少数人涉及这一不足,但比起研究佛、道思想对艺术的影响,数量可谓少之又少。本文着力于这一领域,对阳明后学之泰州学派与明末清初艺术思想的关系作了初步的浅析浅析和研究。阳明后学属于中国哲学史的范畴,而明清艺术思想属于中国艺术史的范畴,将这两个理论领域进行尝试性的对接,是本文想要达到的主要目的。需要强调的是,由于艺术领域门类众多,也由于明末清初为中国艺术史上绘画成就极高之时期,故本文在论述过程中,主要选取了艺术领域中的绘画门类,所论艺术思想多以绘画思想为例,论及艺术家也首重画家及画评家。 一种思想在刚刚产生的时候,是不一定直接影响到与他同时期的各种文化现象的,必须通过时间的延伸,学问的流传,他人的再加工再解释,才能逐渐深入人的心灵。阳明心学也是如此,它一边发生着嬗变,一边扩大着影响直至到了阳明后学时期,才逐渐产生了对艺术现象的影响力。 对明末清初的画家群体,本文析出四个特点:其一,提倡“自我尊重”,追求个性解放;其二,强调“抑理重情”,彰显世俗情怀;其三,寄情山水,求禅问道;其四,画不求奇,但求胸中实有。通过与泰州学派核心人物王艮、何心隐、罗汝芳、李贽等人哲学思想的比较研究,可以清晰地发现泰州学派哲学思想与明末清初绘画思想的同一性,以此可以发现前者对后者的影响。 同时,本文还从思想家与艺术家活动区域的同一性、思想家与艺术家的交往史等多个方面提供了支持论题的旁证。

    【Abstract】WwW.zIdiR.coM The art thoughts are sure to have a great change when great achievements in Chinese thoughts history are accomplished. This paper analyzes and investigates the relations between Taizhou School and the art thoughts of later Ming and early Qing Dynasties. Taizhou School belongs to the domain of Chinese thoughts history while the art thoughts of later Ming and early Qing Dynasties belong to the domain of Chinese art history. This paper aims to merge these two domains. Concerning various schools of arts, this paper focus on the school of drawing.It’ s certain that a thought, when first coming into being, may not directly influence other phenomena of culture of the same period of time. With time passing by and knowledge spread around, it can penetrate into people’ s soul after people’ s reproduction and reinterpretation. This is especially true of Yangming philosophy, which effects influence on other phenomena of art while it changes within itself and spreads its influence till the end of Yangming philosophy.This paper concludes four characteristics for the artists in the later Ming and early Qing dynasties: first, advocating self-respect and seeking for the liberation of personality; second, emphasizing "restraining reasons and upgrading feelings" ; third, indulging in the scenery and meditation; fourth, not striving for the uniqueness in their drawing but the strength of their drawing. Comparing the philosophical thinking of such key figures of Taizhou School as Wanggen, Hexinying, Luorufang and Lizhi, this paper finds clearly the identity between the philosophical thinking of Taizhou School and the drawing thinking of the later Ming and early Qing dynasties as well as the influence of the former on the latter.At the mean time, this paper presents extraneous evidence for its topic in terms of the history of communication between thinkers and artists as well as the identity of the activity area of them.

    【关键词】 泰州学派; 哲学思想; 四僧; 新安画派; 扬州画派; 绘画思想;
    【Key words】 Taizhou School; philosophical thinking; Four Monks; Drawing School of Xin’an; Drawing School of Yangzhou; drawing thinking;
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