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谈民意党
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谈民意党

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  • 俄国,激进知识阶层,民意党,理念与实践,
    正文开始
    十九世纪俄国激进知识阶层的崛起,要获益于亚历山大二世自由主义的大革新。正是在这样的大背景下,他们登上历史舞台,自喻为俄国人民利益之代表。在西方思想的教益与俄国传统文化的熏陶中,他们积极参与社会事务,甚至一度想自己主导俄国社会的改造,其激进的顶峰即民意党之建立并付诸自己的实践活动,以回答俄国社会知识青年“怎么办”的提问。本文的基本观点是民意党的建立自有其十九世纪特殊的社会情势与心理氛围,她脱胎于“自由与土地社”基础之上,并转变了原有的斗争方式。他们为获得政治自由而进行了各种实践和准备活动,且进一步发展了新的组织原则:秘密原则、严格的纪律原则和少数服从多数原则、目标高于手段原则。最为引人注目的是,她自身在不同群体间的革命活动,相互交织,构筑了19世纪俄国历史上蔚为灿烂的一幕,为以后俄国马克思主义的生根、成长做好铺垫。本论文共分为四个部分:第一个部分浅析浅析民意党成立的十九世纪俄国社会态势,从物质基础和社会心理这两方面着重论述,尝试探讨19世纪俄国社会变革对知识阶层的心理冲击。第二部分主要论述民意党的经济社会思想、政治恐怖主义理念,同时也阐述了民意党成立的组织原则。展现当时民意党的指导性原则与俄国历史上激进主义的继承、发展关系。第三部分着重阐释了民意党的各种革命实践活动,进一步丰富了民意党活动之图景和整体的形象,勾勒出民意党与十九世纪晚期俄国各种社会运动的关系。第四部分为结语,阐述民意党对俄国历史的影响。

    【Abstract】WwW.zIdiR.coM The rise of Russian radical intelligentsia in the nineteenth century was benefited from the liberal reform of Alexander II. It was in this background that they boarded the stage of history and regarded themselves as the representative of the interests of the Russian people. Profiting from Western thought and the influence of Russian traditional culture, they actively participated in social affairs and even wanted to lead the transformation of Russian society. The summit of the radical party was the establishment of public opinion and put into their practice to reply to Russian educated young people "how to do" .In this paper, the basic view is that the establishment of "People’s Will" had its own special social and psychological atmosphere of the nineteenth century. She derived from the basis of "land of freedom and agency", and changed her original way of struggle. In order to obtain their political freedom , they took much practice and preparation, and they even developed a new organizing principle: the principle of secret , the principle of strict discipline and the principle of majority rule, the principle of the objectives being higher than the means . Most notably, her revolutionary activities were intertwined with the different groups. These all became a brilliant scene in the 19th century Russian history, and finally took root and grow to pave the way for the future of Marxi** in Russia.This paper is divided into four parts:The first part analyses the social situation of the establishment of "people’s Will" in the nineteenth century. This part focuses on the material basis and social psychology, and attempts to look into the psychological impact of social change on intelligentsia in the 19th century .The second part focuses on the opinions of the economic and social thought, the concept of political terrori**, and also the principle of party organization. This part tries to show the guiding principles of "people’s Will" and the history of the inheritance and the development of Russian radicali**.The third part tries to explain a variety of revolutionary practice activities of "People’s Will", and further enriches the opinion of her activities and the overall picture of the image. This part will outline the relationship between "People’s Will" and various Russian social movements in the late nineteenth century.The fourth Part will draw conclusion and expound the influence of "People’s Will" on Russian history.

    【关键词】 俄国; 激进知识阶层; 民意党; 理念与实践;
    【Key words】 Russia; The radical intelligentsia; The "People’s Will"; Theory and practice;
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