问责,行政问责制,西方国家,比较研究,西方行政问责制的比较探究
西方行政问责制的比较探究
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西方行政问责制的比较探究

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  • 问责,行政问责制,西方国家,比较研究,
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    行政问责制是指行政权力的委托方(授权人)针对获得授权的****方(政府首脑、行政机关及其公务员)所承担的职责和义务的履行情况,要求其做出必要的解释或说明,对于不履行或不正确履行职责的,依据法定程序追究其责任,使其承担相应的否定性结果的一系列制度规范的总和。行政问责制起源于近代西方国家,是西方资产阶级代议****政治制度的产物。行政问责制体现了“责任行政”的原则,是西方国家建设责任政府的具体体现形式。目前我国的行政问责制无论在理论上还是实践上都处于探索阶段,还有许多亟待解决的理论和实践不足。对西方国家的行政问责制度进行深入系统的比较研究,总结其共性与差异,浅析浅析差异背后的理由,探索其内在的本质和规律,对构建和完善中国的行政问责制度有着重要的理论意 义。为此,本文将美国、英国、法国、德国、日本五个西方发达国家的行政问责制作为研究的对象。在对行政问责制的概念、内涵进行清晰把握和界定的基础上,采用文献研究、国别比较、微观要素比较、浅析浅析综合等策略对五国的行政问责制进行比较研究,总结它们之间存在的共性和差异,进而浅析浅析差异背后的理由。最后提炼出西方国家行政问责制所蕴含的内在规律:注重权力制衡,以权力制约权力;注重社会力量的发挥,以权利监督权力;注重法治建设,以法律规范权力。

    【Abstract】WwW.zIdiR.coM Administrative accountability system refers to a set of regulations and institutions, with which the consigner of administrative power (authorizer) ask the authorized agents (political leader, administrative bodies and officials) to explain and account for the operations of their responsibilities and duties and inquire them to be responsible for the passive outcomes led by administrative omission and/or negligence in accordance with related legal proceedings. The system was given birth in modern western countries and was the product of western representative democracy. It embodies the principal of Responsible Administration and is the concrete form of western responsible government. China is now in the exploratory phase of establishing the system theoretically and practically, with lots of urgent theoretical and practical problems to be settled. And making in depth comparative research on western countries’ accountability systems, summarizing their similarities and distinctions, analyzing the reasons for distinctions and exploring their inner natures and rules are of profound theoretical importance to construct and enhance China’s administrative accountability system.For these, this dissertation puts administrative accountability systems of America, Britain, France, Germany and Japan as research objects. And with the basis of clarification of the system’s definition and connotation, the dissertation makes a comparison between the five countries’administrative accountability system mainly through the approaches of literature review, national comparison, micro-factors comparison and deduction-induction, thus summarizing the similarities and differentiations and further analyzing the reasons for them. Finally, it extracts western administrative accountability systems’inner rules, namely 1) stressing check and balance, with power to restrict power; 2) attaching special importance to social powers, with rights to supervise power; and 3) focusing on legislation enhancement, with laws to regulate power.

    【关键词】 问责; 行政问责制; 西方国家; 比较研究;
    【Key words】 accountability; administrative accountability; western countries; comparison research;
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