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谈建筑物高空抛物侵权责任
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谈建筑物高空抛物侵权责任

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  • 建筑物高空抛物,侵权责任,归责原则,责任承担,
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    建筑物高空抛物侵权案件随着城市化进程的加快在现实中大量出现,我国侵权责任法颁布之前对该案件不同法院做出了不同的处理结果,在实践和理论上产生很多不足。尽管我国侵权责任法已经颁布并对抛物侵权责任进行了规定,但现行立法规定并没有体现建筑物高空抛物侵权责任的特点,并有将建筑物高空抛物侵权责任和建筑物及其它设施责任混淆之嫌。本文从司法实践入手,浅析浅析理论和实践中处理建筑物高空抛物责任的不足,介绍国内外相关立法例和法律倡议稿,进而在界定清晰建筑物高空抛物侵权行为概念和特点的前提下,引入可救济性损害理论作为浅析浅析工具,浅析浅析建筑物高空抛物侵权责任应当适用的归责原则以及责任承担等不足。引言部分主要介绍理论基础、研究策略以及研究角度等基本不足。第一部分从现实司法案例入手,介绍不同法院对案件事实基本相同的建筑物高空抛物侵权案件的不同处理依据以及处理结果,从案例中浅析浅析处理建筑物高空抛物侵权案件存在的实践以及理论不足。第二部分鉴于对建筑物高空抛物侵权行为概念认识的混乱,本文对其概念及特点进行了严格界定。认为建筑物高空抛物侵权行为不同于共同危险行为和建筑物及其它设施侵权行为,不能适用共同危险行为制度和建筑物及其他设施侵权责任制度处理该类案件。第三部分介绍国内外相关立法例及国内立法倡议稿。国外立法例主要包括:美国立法近况、法国立法近况以及德国立法近况。国内侵权法倡议稿主要包括:梁慧星侵权法倡议稿相关条文,王利明侵权法倡议稿相关条文、杨立新侵权法倡议稿相关条文以及全国人大法工委侵权法倡议稿相关条文。最后介绍了我国台湾地区相关规定以及最新颁布的侵权责任法相关条文。第四部分详细浅析浅析了处理建筑物高空抛物侵权责任应当适用的侵权法理念。本文主要引入可救济性损害理论作为本文立论基础和浅析浅析工具。侵权法理念从以惩罚加害人为主向救济受害人为主转变,现代侵权法应当定位为救济法,对受害人损失的补救和弥补是现代侵权法的首要价值理念。可救济性损害理论还直接影响着归责原则以及举证责任等的界定。第五部分以可救济性损害理论为浅析浅析工具,首先对建筑物高空抛物侵权责任归责原则进行认定,分别浅析浅析过错责任原则、过错推定责任原则、无过错责任愿者和公平责任原则。在归责原则的基础上浅析浅析建筑物高空抛物侵权责任的举证责任,包括一般举证规则和举证责任倒置规则两个方面。然后浅析浅析其构成要件,主要包括三个方面,损害行为、因果关系和损害事实。责任承担方面以行为人是否能确定为标准分别认定,最后论述了建筑物高空抛物侵权责任的具体承担方式。

    【Abstract】WwW.zIdiR.coM With the increasing development of urbanization, lots of cases of right infringement for throwing objects from high buildings emerge in the society. Prior to the announcement of the national Right Infringement Responsibility Law, from the practice and theroy, many issues arise from the results of different courts to make judge to these cases. Though the national Right Infringement Responsibility Law makes regulations for these cases, the regulations have not figured out the features of the right infringement for throwing objects from high buildings, and have some mixtures between right infringement for throwing objects from high buildings and the responsibility of the building and other establishments. Based on the law practice, the essay analyzes the shortage in dealing with the right infringement for throwing objects from high buildings in the theory and practice, and introduces the relevant legislations and law suggetion drafts home and abroad. Meanwhile, under the condition of regulating concept and feature of right infringement behavior for throwing objects from high buildings, the essay introduces in the relief damaging theory as the analyzing tool to analyze the applied imputation principle for the right infringement behavior for throwing objects from high buildings, and who shall assume the responsibility.The foreword part mainly introduces basic issues of theoretical basis, research method and research view.Start with factual justice case, the first part introduces different gists and results for similar right infringement cases for throwing objects from high buildings, and analyzes the practical and theoretical issues in right infringement cases for throwing objects from high buildings in these cases.As the cognition for conception of right infringement for throwing objects from high buildings is confusing, the second part strictly regulates its conception and features. The essay considers that right infringement for throwing objects from high buildings differs from common peril behavior and buildings and other establishments right infringement behavior. It can not be applied with the regulations for common peril behavior and buildings and other establishments right infringement behavior.The third part introduces the relevant legislations and law suggetion drafts home and abroad. Foreign legislation mainly includes:American legislation actuality, French legislation actuality and Germany legislation actuality. National Right Infringement Law suggestion drafts mainly include:Liang Huixing right infringement law suggestion drafts and relevant items, Wang Liming right infringement law suggestion draft and relevant items, Yan Lixin right infringement law suggestion draft and relevant items and Committee of Legislative Affairs of National People’s Congress right infringement suggestion draft and relevant items. Finally the part introduces the relevant regulations and recently published right infringement responsibility laws and relevant items in Taiwan of China.The fourth part analyzes the proper laws used in coping with right infringement cases for throwing objects from high buildings in details. The essay mainly introduces in relief damaging theory which is treated as the foundation and analyzing tool of the essay. The concept of right infringement law transfers from giving priority to punishing inflicting person to giving priority to relieving victim. The modern right infringement law shall be positioned as relief law, and the relief and remedy to the victim is the chief concept for the modern right infringement law. Meanwhile, the theory directly influences imputation principle and the regulation of evidence presentation liability.The fifth part uses relief damaging theory as the analyzing tool, and firstly recognizes the imputation principle of right infringement for throwing objects from high buildings, and respectively analyzes fault responsibility principle, fault recommending responsibility principle, non-fault responsibility principle and equity responsibility principle. Based on the responsibility principle, the part analyzes evidence presentation liability of right infringement for throwing objects from high buildings, including general quoting rule and evidence presentation liability converting rule. Then the part analyzes the composing components, mainly inculding three aspects, damaging behavior, consequence relation and damaging fact. The person who shall take on the responsibility should be decided respectively, and the essay finally discusses the responsibility assuming methods for right infringement behavior for throwing objects from high buildings.

    【关键词】 建筑物高空抛物; 侵权责任; 归责原则; 责任承担;
    【Key words】 throwing objects from high buildings; right infringement responsibility; imputation principle; responsibility assuming;
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