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我国工伤认定法律制度探讨

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  • 工伤,工伤认定,工伤认定范围,工伤认定主体,
    正文开始
    工伤认****度是工伤保险法律制度中一个重要的组成部分,是伤亡职工享受工伤保险待遇的前置程序和基本依据,它的内容规定直接涉及到劳动者的权利保护以及劳资双方的关系稳定。《工伤保险条例》是进行工伤认定,解决工伤纠纷的重要法律依据。从04年到10年,仅仅5年时间就被“修法”,堪称中国司法界迄今的“修法”史上先例。本文从新旧条例的对比中,对我国目前工伤认定立法的进步和不足之处进行了总结,深入细致浅析浅析造成目前工伤认定难及劳动者权益得不到及时保护的理由,提出革新方向和措施,以期对我国工伤认定法律制度的日臻完善有所裨益。本文由引言、正文、结语三部分组成,其中正文由四部分组成:第一部分:工伤认定的性质和价值浅析浅析。工伤也称职业伤害,是指企业职工在生产岗位上,从事与生产劳动相关的工作,或者由于劳动条件、作业环境等理由所引起的人身伤害事故或职业病。但工伤只是一个学理性的概念,难以被准确定义;从世界范围来看,社会政治经济的不断发展、人权保障意识的逐步加强以及劳资矛盾的激化等多种理由,工伤的认定情形存在着一个逐渐扩大的趋势。相对于工伤概念的不确定性,工伤认定则具有法定性。工伤认定是指国家有关部门根据国家的政策、法规的规定,确定职工受伤或患职业病是因公造成的,还是非因公造成的事实。工伤认定是一种具体行政行为,是伤亡职工享受工伤保险待遇的前置程序和基本依据,对保护劳动者合法权益,维护社会稳定和谐具有重要意 义。第二部分:我国工伤认****度的发展进程。全面梳理了我国工伤认定法律制度的发的历程,其中最为重要的是04年实施的《工伤保险条例》,规定工伤认定由统筹地区的劳动保障行政部门作出,并从工作时间、工作场所、工作理由等对什么是工伤进行了列举式的规定。04年《工伤保险条例》的公布使我国的工伤认定法律制度初见雏形,但随着社会经济的发展和司法实务的推进,已有的工伤认定法律制度逐步暴露它的一些不合理和需要与时俱进、改善提高之处。2010年对《工伤保险条例》做了修改,扩大了工伤保险适用范围和上下班工伤范围,以及简化了工伤认定的处理程序。第三部分:从新旧《工伤保险条例》对比中剖析我国的工伤认定法律制度,肯定了工伤认****度取得的进步之处,但结合我国处理工伤纠纷的实践和有关法理浅析浅析可以得出,此次对《工伤保险条例》的修改是不建全面、不深刻的,最突出的地方是工伤认定机构设置不合理。“法律是保护公民权利的最后一道防线”,而现行法律并没有赋予法院对工伤认定的最终裁决权,由此导致了,行政权司法权冲突,工伤纠纷案件久拖不决,致使法律对处于弱势地位劳动者的保护不能得到及时、有效实现。同时,文中本人就当下讨论十分热烈的“过劳死”是否属于工伤,结合“富士康12跳”的案例,提出自己的一些观点:对于“因工作理由导致劳动者自杀”是否认定为工伤,要用矛盾的眼光看不足,具体不足具体浅析浅析。如果是由于用人单位管理制度出现不足或用人单位有强制加班或超时加班现象,进而导致劳动者身心俱疲,出现不可承受的心理压力,导致伤亡的出现,经过调查研究,情况确切属实,可以认定为工伤;如果是由于劳动者个人心理素质不好或家庭理由导致的恶果,纵然其工作压力很大也不应认定为工伤。第四部分:结合域外相关立法展望我国工伤认定法律制度的前景。针对工伤认****度存在的弊端,有人提出废除工伤认定。针对此种观点,本人在结合域外相关的基础上提出自己的观点:我国应继续保留工伤认定,并做出进一步变革;进一步明确工伤认定标准,制定工伤认定的一般条款,同时秉承“宽严相济”的立法理念,在不加重用人单位风险的前提下限制性扩大工伤认定范围,更好地保护劳动者的合法权益;进行工伤认定机构革新:赋予法院对工伤认定的最终裁决权,由劳动保障行政继续负责参加工伤保险的工伤进行认定,并赋予法院和劳动仲裁机构非参保工伤的认定权,使工伤认定在制度层面更为合理。

    【Abstract】WwW.zIdiR.coM Work-Related injuries system, is an important component of work-injuries legal system, workers enjoying the pre-injury insurance program and the fundamental basis, the provisions of its content directly related to the protection of the rights of workers and stable relationship between employers and employees. "Work-Injury Insurance Regulations," the injury is found to resolve the important legal basis for the work injury disputes. From 04 to 10 years, only 5 years to be "amending the law," the Chinese judiciary has so far called the "amending the law" in the history of precedent. From the comparison of old and new regulations, legislation related injuries on our country’s progress and shortcomings are summarized, in-depth and detailed analysis lead to related injuries difficult, and current lack of timely protection of labor rights, raising proposes reform and measuresin order for our legal system related injuries benefit of improving.This article from the introduction, body, conclusion of three parts, of which the body consists of four parts:Part I: The nature and value of work-related injury analysis. Work-related Injury, also known as occupational injury, is on the enterprise employees in production jobs, engaging in productive labor-related work, or because of working conditions, work environment and other causes personal injury caused by accident or occupational disease. But the injury is only a concept of rational science, difficult to define exactly; from a global perspective, the continuous development of social and political economy, the gradual strengthening awareness of human rights protection and the intensification of labor conflicts and other reasons, there are the employment injury cases agradully expand. The concept of relative uncertainty of injury, related injuries are a legal nature. Related injuries is the national authorities in accordance with national policies, regulations, determining the employee injury or occupational disease caused by the public or not because the public caused by the fact. Related injuries is a specific administrative act, employees entitled to industrial injury insurance casualty pre-treatment process and fundamental basis, the protection of legitimate rights and interests of workers, maintaining social stability and harmony of great significance.Part II: The system of the development process work-related injuries. Our comprehensive reviews on the development of the legal system related injuries course, the most important is the implementation of 2004, "Work-Injury Insurance Regulations", providing work-related injuries identified by the coordinating regional labor and social security departments to make, and from the working time, workplace, cause of ,and for what the related in injuries on the list-style rules.2004 "Work-Injury Insurance Regulations," the announcement make the legal system in China show signs of injury identified prototype, but with the social and economic development and the promotion of judicial practice, the existing legal system work-related injuries that gradually exposed some of its unreasonable and need tothe times, to improve In.2010 "Industrial Insurance Rules" was amended to expand the scope of the work injury insurance and work injury on the scope of work and streamline the processing of the related injuries. Part III: From the Old and New "Injury Insurance Regulations," Comparative analysis of the injuries identified in the legal system, the system must identify the injury progress and he combination of the practice of dealing with work-related injuries and disputes can be drawn about the legal analysis of "Work-Injury Insurance Regulations," the change is not comprehensive, profound, the most prominent place is related injuries that agencies sets is unreasonable." Law is the last line of defence of protecting the rights of citizens" while the current law does not give the court finds that the final decision on the right of work-related injuries, which leads judicial power, executive power conflict, protracted disputes injury, resulting that the law protection of the weak position of workers can not get timely and effective implementation.Meanwhile, the present paper to discuss my very warm, "death from overwork" is whether work-related injuries, with "Foxconn 12-jump" case, putting forward some own point : for the "worker committed suicide due to work reasons" whether identified as work-related injuries, we need use perspective to see problem specific analysis to specific issues. If the management system is due to problems with the employer management employer has the phenomenon of forced overtime, or overtime, which leads to workers physically and mentally fatigued, there unbearable the psychological pressure, leading to the emergence of casualties, after investigation, the situation is exactly true, can be identified as work-related injuries; If it is due, not individual workers or family psychological consequences of causes, even if the great pressure of work should not be recognized as work-related injuries.Part IV: From the relevant legislation with extraterritorial legal system ,we can find the prospect of work-related injuries of China Accreditation System for the drawbacks of work-related injuries, someone determine to abolish the injury. For this view, I relate to the combination of the basis of extraterritorial, putting forward own view: China should continue to retain related injuries, and to make further changes; further define the standard of work-related injuries that standard, the general provisions of the development related injuries, while adhering to the "Tempering" legislative concept, without increasing the risk of employers to expand work-related injuries identified under the premise of limited scope, to better protect the legitimate rights and interests of workers; the institutional reforms related injuries: The court has the final decision right on the work-related injuries; the labor security administrative continues to be responsible for work injury insurance, The court and labor arbitration has the right of identifying the non-emplayment injury insurance ; make the work-related injuries more reasonable on the system.

    【关键词】 工伤; 工伤认定; 工伤认定范围; 工伤认定主体;
    【Key words】 Work-related injury; Identifying Work-related injury; The Range of Work-Related Injury; The Subject of Work-related injury;
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