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周灭商战略探讨

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  • 先周,商,商周关系,军事战略,策略互动,
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    牧野之战作为周取代商的重大标志和商周关系发展变化的****,向来不乏深入研究,但在研究的范围上大多以牧野之战周胜利的理由为探讨中心,比较缺乏以先周一百年(太王至武王)为背景的周灭商军事战略的系统考察和整体性深思。就军事战略而言,周之灭商是否可以以一百年为整体而有机的研究对象,本身仍是有一定疑问的。但通过一定的梳理、解释,这个疑问是可以消释的,因为人类社会的发展规律和周人本身复杂的渊源、情结是可以激发周人用一百年来达成心愿的。周人在太王时期便有了翦商大志,至牧野伐商功成,百年之久,其间的艰辛和曲折是应该得到尊重和呈现的,其实完全不像周人的颂诗里那般顺利酣畅。王季历在为商廷屡建功勋的顶点被杀,太伯、仲雍的奔往荆蛮,文王率殷之叛国而事纣等,不仅是周人百年艰辛的表征,其背后更隐藏着周人百折不挠奋斗细节和沉重代价。周人希冀灭亡的商,是有着数百年统治根基的发达大国,周人的成功离不开它对大国行为的成功应对;同样地,高高在上的大国也会通过自己对小国的观察和估计变换自己的对策。周取代商,是在两国的不断互动中最终实现的。其间,作为成功者的周人,有过对策的失误和执行的偏差,作为失败者的商纣也有过精明的应对。当然,两国的对策选择,也在一定程度上受着外部环境的束缚而不得不然。当周人灭商之心萌生时,其灭商的军事战略方针也初步形成了,这当在太王之时。通过对王季历、文王一系列举措的考察,可以看出太王初定的灭商战略,并且还能看到这条战略的执行情况和效果,以及进行调整的理由和动力。文王、武王时的事件和个别美丽外衣掩盖下的秘情则为我们呈现了这条战略的补充和完善情况。最终,周人的宏图大志就在这一战略的指导下,经过一定的调整、补充,再在天才执行者的手里得到实现,小邦周神奇地取大邦商而代之了。此外,周灭商战略所以能助周人实现以小并大的宏愿,政治战略的配合是相当重要的,而且无法脱离当时特殊的社会意识氛围而获得成功,这些都是不容忽视的,本文确也没有忽视。

    【Abstract】WwW.zIdiR.coM Battle Muye has always been no shortage of in-depth study as the major sign of Zhou dynasty’s replacement of Shang dynasty and the climax of development and changes the relations between Zhou and Shang, however, most studies were centered on the reasons of Zhou’s victory in the battle lacking of the military strategy review and comprehensive system of thinking under the background of one hundred years from pre-Zhou kingdom’s first ancestor to the Great King Wu.In terms of military strategy whether the background can be a hundred years as a whole and organic research object itself is still a certain doubt. But through some sort, explained, this doubt can dispel, because the law of development of human society and the complex origin of the Zhou People, they were excited with a hundred years to achieve their wishes.It was a hundred long years from the ambition’s born of acquiring Shang’s Crown to the King Wu’s final sucess, the hardships and setbacks should be respected and rendered during the long way. In fact, nothing is so **ooth like the song in their Epic. King Ji-Li was killed in the culmination of repeated construction feats for Shang,Taibo and Zhongyong’s fledding to the wild south of Yangzi River and King Wen’s served the Tyrannical King Zhou,not only characterized Zhou People’s hardships for one hundred years but also the indomitable struggle to take the details and a heavy price to replacing Shang dynasty hidden behind. The Shang dynasty,whom the Zhou wished to replace,was a great developed country of hundreds of years ruling foundation that Zhou’s final success couldn’t acquire without proper responses to Great Shang’s actions. Similarly, the superior power of **all countries would through their own observation and the estimated change their strategies. Zhou’s final success was due to the result in the constant interaction between the two countries. In the meantime, as the success of the Zhou Dynasty, there have been mistakes in strategy and implementation of the deviation, as the loser of the Shang King Zhou also had a **art response. Of course, the two strategic options, but also to some extent, being affected by the shackles of the external environment and not otherwise.When the Zhou people off the idea of initiation of the Shang Dynasty, the corresponding military strategy of destroying the Shang Dynasty is also formed. Through King Jili and King Wen’s inspecting a series of initiatives, we can see that the First King’s tentative strategy to eliminate the Shang Dynasty, and also see the implementation of this strategy, and effects, and the reasons and motivation to adjust. King Wen, King Wu and some individual secret events under the beautifu cover presented us this strategy’s complement and improvement. Finally, Zhou’s grand ambition to the guidance in this strategy, after some adjustments, replenishment, and then in the hands of gifted actors be realized, the **all state Zhou took place amazingly of the big state Shang.In addition, the strategy it can help eliminate the large Shang achieveing the vision of **all, co-ordination of political strategy is important and it can not be divorced from the social consciousness of the special atmosphere of that time be successful, they can not be ignored, this does not ignored.

    【关键词】 先周; 商; 商周关系; 军事战略; 对策互动;
    【Key words】 the Pre-Zhou kingdonm; the Shang Dynasty; Relations between Shang and Zhou Military strategy; Strategic Interaction;
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