科德尔·赫尔,外交思想,评价,特点,科德尔·赫尔外交思想探讨
科德尔·赫尔外交思想探讨
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科德尔·赫尔外交思想探讨

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  • 科德尔·赫尔,外交思想,评价,特点,
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    科德尔·赫尔是美国外交史上一位非常重要的政治家。其外交思想具有非常丰富的内容,主要表现为自由贸易思想、反法西斯主义思想、集体安全思想和睦邻思想等。在赫尔外交思想的指导下,美国逐步从大萧条中恢复过来,取得了反法西斯战争的胜利,领导建立起了战后国际安全体系,并成为战后世界的霸主。赫·尔外交思想的产生是个人的成长经历、社会背景与国际环境、党派政治等多种因素综合作用的结果。他家庭的农业背景和从小成长的环境影响了他思想中公平观念的建立,美西战争、一战和世界性经济危机启发他不断拓展着自己的视野,长期的国会工作也使他的政治经验越来越丰富。他的自由贸易思想要求实现低关税自由贸易,消除国际贸易阻碍,这不仅适应了当时世界经济发展的需要,而且降低了由于贸易摩擦而爆发国际冲突的可能性,并为建立规范化、正常化的世界贸易体系指明了方向。他的反法西斯主义思想,认清了法西斯主义侵略扩张的本性,鼓舞了各国正在坚持法西斯斗争的人民,在一定程度上震慑了进行侵略活动的法西斯国家;他还提出了战后改造法西斯国家的构想。他认为在集体安全思想指导下建立起国际安全体系是可行的,美国冲破了孤立主义的枷锁,分别建立起泛美集体安全体系和联合国来保障西半球与全世界的安全,保证了盟国获得反法西斯战争的胜利,为维护战后世界和平作出了巨大贡献。他执行的面向拉丁美洲的睦邻政策,密切了拉美各国与美国的经济联系,客观上有利于拉美国家经济的恢复和人民生活水平的提高,在事实上减少了美国对拉美国家的武装干涉,从而改善了美国与拉美各国的外交关系,巩固了美国在西半球的地位。本文在继承前人研究的基础上,通过对赫尔思想内容和实践活动的浅析浅析,总结了赫尔外交思想的特点:始终把实现自由贸易作为其从事外交活动的出发点和终极目标,自由贸易思想是其外交思想的灵魂;集体安全思想与睦邻思想,则分别是他维护世界和西半球和平与秩序的策略论;反法西斯思想则作为一面旗帜而存在,指导美国参加反法西斯战争并为胜利后对轴心国的改造指明方向。我们既要看到赫尔作为一名国际主义者为世界和平与经济繁荣积极奔走的情怀,也要看到其思想中的历史局限性,包括:没有看到国家间各种矛盾与冲突在客观上的复杂性,国际视野没有包括欠发达国家和地区;没能在要求法西斯国家无条件投降不足上提出自己的对策;集体安全体系内部仍有强烈的霸权主义和强权政治色彩,同时也没有解决西方与苏联在意识形态上的分歧;在拉美推行的互惠贸易协定,损害了这些弱国的关税自主权,致使这些国家原本就十分孱弱的民族工业难以为继,等等。

    【Abstract】WwW.zIdiR.coM Cordell Hull is one of the most important state**en in the history of American foreign policy, whose diplomatic thoughts have the extremely rich contents, including the idea of free trade, the idea of anti-fascist, the idea of collective security and the idea of Good Neighbor. With the guidance of Hull’s diplomatic thoughts, the United States recovered gradually from the Great Depression, won the anti-fascist war, built the international security system after the war and got the world hegemony in the post-war world.Hull’s diplomatic thoughts are the result of various factors, such as his growth experiences, social background and the international environment, politics between the partisan, and so on. The fair idea of his thoughts was from the background of his family and the environment he had grown, the Spanish-American War, World War I and the world economic crisis expanded his view, long-term work in Parliament gave him more political experience. His idea of free trade required a lower level tariff to achieve free trade, eliminated international trade barriers. It was not only adapted to the needs of the world economy, but also reduced the possibility of international conflict which was caused by trade friction, it also pointed out the direction to build a more standard world trading system. His idea of anti-fascist understood the nature of fascist, which is called aggression and expansion, and this idea encouraged the people who were struggling with the fascist countries. To a certain extent, it deterred the activities of fascist aggression. It also gave the suggestion to transform the fascist states after the war. He thought that it is feasible to establish the international security system under the idea of the collective security. The United States broke the shackle of isolationi**, established the Pan American collective security system to protect the security of the Western Hemisphere, and established the United Nations to protect the security of the whole world. It ensured the allies’victory of anti-fascist war, and made a great contribution to the world peace after the war. Through his Good Neighbor Policy in Latin America, the economic relationship between Latin American countries and the United States became close. It was helpful in recovering the economy of Latin America and improving the people’s living standards there. The U.S.’armed intervention in Latin America reduced, and the diplomatic relationship between the U.S. and Latin American countries improved, the status of the United States consolidated in the Western Hemisphere.In succession to previous studies, through the analysis about Hull’s thoughts and practice, this article summarizes the characteristics of Hull’s diplomatic thoughts: The idea of free trade is the soul of his diplomatic thoughts, the realization of free trade is the starting point and ultimate goal of his diplomatic activities. The idea of collective security and Good Neighbor were the methodology to maintain peace respectively toward the world and the Western Hemisphere. The idea of anti-fascist existed as a banner to guide the United States against fasci** in the war and transform the countries after the war which had been defeated. We should realize Hull’s positive achievements as an internationalist for world peace and economic prosperity, and we should also realize the historical limitation of his thoughts, including: He did not realize the complexity which was from the contradictions and conflicts between countries, his global vision did not include less-developed countries and regions. He did not put forward his own solutions toward the unconditional surrender of fascist state. Hegemony and power politics still existed in the collective security system, and the ideological differences still existed between the West and the Soviet Union. The implementation of the reciprocal trade agreements in Latin America, damaged the tariff autonomy of these countries, the national industry of these countries were hard to survive, and so on.

    【关键词】 科德尔·赫尔; 外交思想; 评价; 特点;
    【Key words】 Cordell Hull; diplomatic thoughts; evaluation; characteristic;
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