王艮,道德教育思想,平民教育,王艮道德教育思想探析
王艮道德教育思想探析
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王艮道德教育思想探析

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  • 王艮,道德教育思想,平民教育,
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    王艮作为泰州学派的创始人,在继承王守仁等前辈思想的基础上,提出许多具有划时代意 义的见解,开创了平民儒学之风,使平民道德教育能够在晚明迅速发展。他所主张的“天理良知”、“百姓日用即道”、“淮南格物”等思想,在晚明时期占有举足轻重的地位,且影响深远。关于王艮的思想,“天理良知”、“百姓日用即道”、“淮南格物”是他思想的核心,也是他的道德教育思想形成的理论基础。本文主要从以下几个方面勾勒提炼王艮的道德教育思想体系:第一部分,对王艮道德教育思想产生的历史文化背景进行浅析浅析。着重介绍了明中叶的社会基本状况,尤其是当时经济的发展和政治上的不稳定,市民阶层的兴起,对人们的思想观念变化带来的影响;同时对王艮所处时代的文化背景进行了浅析浅析,明朝统治者极力推崇理学并把其作为官学,也正式因为如此,理学的弊端日益暴露并恶化,尤其明中叶阳明心学的兴起和发展对王艮的思想起到极其重要的影响;再次,理论来源包括两方面,分别是儒学的熏陶和对王学的继承。王艮非常推崇儒家思想,这一点在他的学术思想中处处可见。儒学本身就是一种成就圣贤的学问,故儒家的教育思想非常丰富,尤其注重道德教育,王艮继承并发展了儒学的这一思想。第二部分,对王艮道德教育思想的主要内容进行论述,首先,道德教育思想的理论基础是“良知”说、“格物”论以及“百姓日用即道”三个方面;其次,道德教育的内容包括他的孝悌观、仁爱思想和明哲保身思想;再次,道德教育策略也包含三个方面:第一方面是通过言传身教使得学生“自觉自化”,第二方面是注重“明师良友”陶冶切磋,第三方面是提倡“乐学”即快乐地学习;最后,道德教育目标是为了培养仁善的道德品质,追求天下平焉的理想社会状态。第三部分,王艮道德教育思想的评价及当代启迪,对王艮道德教育思想的历史价值在于他不仅是一位杰出的哲学家和思想家,而且是一位平民教育家,开启了中国教育史上一代平民化教育的思潮,成为中国封建社会第一轮启蒙教育的先驱者,是中国哲学史上极其少有的平民教育思想家。王艮本人以及他的学说对后世的影响是非常深远的,他的学说和他所创立的泰州学派在中国教育史上占有重要的历史地位,我们在研究中国教育史时必定会提到王艮的道德教育思想。同时,由于王艮生活在一个社会背景混乱、矛盾错综复杂的历史转折时期,他本人以及他所创立的泰州学派都具有很强的革命精神,但是又没有完全摆脱封建传统思想的束缚和影响。纵观他的道德教育思想,虽然具有很大的进步性,但是不能否认也有一定的历史局限性。王艮关于道德教育思想的诸多论述以及他一生大部分时间都致力于平民教育工作的事迹,对我们今天的教育发展甚至是社会的发展都具有借鉴意 义。

    【Abstract】WwW.zIdiR.coM W ang Gen as the founder of Taizhou school in succession Wang Shouren etc, on the basis of predecessors thought, put forward many epoch-making ideas, pioneered the civilians. Confuc ani** as the wind in late Ming dynasty education to civilian moral rapid development. He advocated "natural-principles conscience", "the people daily namely dao", "standard", ideas of huainan Ming period in a pivotal status, and far-reaching influence.At out Wang Gen thoughts, "natural-principles conscience", "the people daily namely dao", "standard" is his thought of huainan, the core of moral education is also his thoughts form theoretical basis. This paper draws the outline of moral awful-sounding Wang Gen educatic n thought system, mainly from the following several aspects:First of all, this paper introduces the basic situation of the mid-ming period, due to then social economic development and political instability, bourgeois rise, then people’s idea also gradually changed; Next to the king in the culture of The Times uzza is analyzed, the Ming dynasty background ruler enshrines neo-confuciani** and its as ironclad, also officially because so, neo-confuciani** increasingly exposed and the disadvantages of YeYangMing broadcasting middle worsen, especially the rise and development of Wang Gen to be extremely important thoughts uzza influences; Again, theoretical sources include two aspects, respectively is the edification of the WangXue Confuciani** and the inherited. Wang Gen very respected king of Confuciani**, and this point in his academic thoughts of everywhere. Confuciani** is in itself an achievement sage, so the learning of Confucian education concept is very rich, especially pay attention to moral education, Wang Gen inherited and developed Confuciani** this thought. Second, the education thought Wang Gen moral main contents, first of all, morality education thought is based on the theory of "conscience" standard "and" people daily namely of three aspects of tao "; Secondly, moral education content including his filial piety relationships between adults view, love thought and to preserve our sanity; Moral education method, again in three aspects:the first is also contains one hand is through tie precept of self-consciously allows students "since", the second is to pay attention to "in the division d" emulating the third way is ripen, advocate "happy" namely study happily; Finally, moral education goal is to develop a humane and pursuit of the moral quality, how’s ideal society state flat. Third, the education thought Wang Gen moral evaluation and contemporary enlightenment to Wang Gen, the history of moral education thought uzza value is that he was not only an outstanding philosophers and thinker, and is a civilian educator, opened in the history of Chinese education thoughts, generation civilian to become China feudal society first round education pioneers, is enlightenment in the history of Chinese philosophy extremely rare education thinker civilian. Wang Gen himself and his theory of chidon the influence is very profound, his doctrine and he founded in the history of Chinese taizhou school occupies an important position in the history of China’s education research, we are bound to mention the moral education thought king gen. At the same time, because of Wang Gen live in a king social background chaos, contradictions complex historical turning point, he himself and he founded taizhou school has strong revolutionary spirit, but not completely out of the feudal traditional thought of bondage and influence. Throughout his moral education thought, although has great progress, but can’t denial also has a certain historical limitations. Moral education thoughts about Wang Gen many explications of and most of the time his life education work deeds to civilians to us today’s education development even social development has significance.

    【关键词】 王艮; 道德教育思想; 平民教育;
    【Key words】 Wang Gen; moral education thought; civilian education;
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